ISSN 1812-7231 Klin.inform.telemed. Volume 8, Issue 9, 2012, Pages 99-111
R. M. Baevsky1, I. I. Funtova1, J. Tank2
1Institute of biomedical problems of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia
2Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
The use of seismo- and ballistocardiography in russian aviation and spacemedicine. A short historical review
Non invasive techniques to monitor cardiovascular function like mechanocardiographic techniques are very popular in Russia and have a long lasting history. They have been used extensively in occupational-, sports-, aviation- and space medicine for more than 60 years now. The first seismocardiograms (SCG) in space were recorded in animals during the third sputnik mission in December, 1960. SCG was recorded in humans during the Vostok-5 and Vostok-6 missions in 1963. The first ballistocardiogram (BCG) in space has been registered by the crew-commander Juri Romanenko during the first expedition on orbital station "Salyut-6" in 1977. Longitudinal BCG during the initial phase of weightlessness (1981, joint Soviet-Romanian mission), during long term space flight (4th mission, 183 days), and sequential triaxial-BCG in space (1984, joint Soviet-Indian mission) were recorded onboard the orbital stations Salyut-6 and Salyut-7. The flight experiment "Vektor" using SCG and real 3D-BCG measurements was carried out in 1990 onboard the MIR space station (6th expedition). SCG and BCG were also used during the longest human space flight over 14 months including the first recordings during sleep (15th-17th expeditions). The flight-experiment "Cardiovector" will start onboard the International Space Station in 2013-2014 including BCG with 6 degrees of freedom. This approach will allow the use of new data processing and data analysis techniques in order to better understand the complex interaction between "cardiac forces", acceleration and displacement vectors, and hemodynamic parameters, which can not be studied under gravity conditions. This information can be used for crew health monitoring and for assessing individual cardiovascular adaption to long term weightlessness.
seismocardiography, ballistocardiography, spacemedicine, cardiovascular physiology, health monitoring, weightlessness