Inventory reference ISSN 1812-7231 Klin.inform.telemed. Volume 8, Issue 9, 2012, Pages 120-128
Author(s) V. N. Sokolov, L. V. Anishchenko
National Medical University of Odesa, Department of Radiology and Radiation therapy to the cycle of Medicine, Ukraine
Article title A role of radial diagnostics methods in the exposure of vascular dementia
The structure of all dementias is vascular dementia (VD) — the second by frequency among the elderly people. So, according to C. P. Ferri, M. Prince, (2005), VD is 16% of the structure of all dementias at the elderly people. The incidence of VD is 6–12 cases per one thousand population aged over 70 years. According to official statistics by Ministry of Health of Ukraine, the country has registered 25, 5 thousand people with VD, the incidence of 4600 new cases per year, and mortality was 20, 5%. The prevalence of vascular dementia increases with age and it is estimated at 1, 5–4, 8%. According to statistics, 1 case of dementia occurs in 350 healthy individuals, and by 2040 it will already be observed at 1 of 85 persons. Vascular diseases may lead to a number of cognitive impairment from mild to severe, and early detection of deficiency allows the doctor to intervene before dementia occurs. We conducted the study of vascular disorders of the brain using CT and MRI to patients with severe dementia and those who had vascular disorders leading to dementia, such as aneurysms, AVMs, vascular disorders in neoplastic diseases. In the study of disease pathology and cognitive changes of dementia there was found the fact that the changes are usuallyassociated with the changes in the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries and their territories, most often in the thalamus. Other strategic targets: the basal ganglia, the knee of the internal capsule, hippocampus, mamillary bodies and strucures of the bridge. For subcortical vascular dementia characterized by loss of small cerebral vessels, the so-called lacunar infarcts. It is the emergence of lacunar infarcts associated step-like progression of the disease. In vascular dementia we have identified the following changes: atrophy (cortical and/or subcortical regions), ventricular enlargement, heart attacks (usually over large areas), gaps of different sizes, hemorrhage, leucomalacia and vascular anomalies (thrombotic plaque, atherosclerosis).
Keywords vascular diseases, cognitive impairment, lacunar infarct, CT, MRI, PET