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Inventory reference ISSN 1812-7231 Klin.inform.telemed. Volume 9, Issue 10, 2013, Pages 79-89


Author(s) R. M. Baevsky, I. I. Funtova E. S. Luchitskaya, A. G. Chernikova


Institution(s)

Institute of biomedical problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow


Article title Studying of long weightlessness influence on autonomic regulation of blood circulation at crew members of the international space station. Space experiment "Pneumocard"


Abstract (resume)

The article presents results of space experiment "Pneumocard", which was held onboard the International space station (ISS) from March, 2007 till December, 2012, are described in article. Experiment was conducted monthly. All Russian crew members of ISS participated in it. 25 cosmonauts have taken part in 226 investigations (130 investigations — onboard ISS, 50 investigations before flight and 46 — after flight).

The experiment "Pneumocard" is devoted to studying the effect of space flight factors on the autonomic regulation of blood circulation, breath and cardiac contractility at long space flights. The purpose of space experiment — to provide new scientific information to deepen the representations about mechanisms cardiorespiratory systems adaptation to conditions of prolonged space flight.

During the experiment following physiological signals were recorded: the electrocardiogram, the impedance cardiogram, the seismocardiogram, pneumotachogram, a finger photopletismogram. Researches onboard ISS were spent by means of a specialized hardware-software complex "Pneumocard". The complex, weighing 200 gramm with electrodes, sensors and connecting wires, was placed on a breast belt of the cosmonaut and provided comfort for experimental researches in microgravity. The recorded information was stored in memory of the onboard computer and transmitted to the Earth via Internet, as well as it was delivered in the form of magnetic recordings when returning crews to the Earth.

The heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, aimed at assessing the features of autonomic regulation of blood circulation, has an important place in data analysis. It is shown that at beginning of the flight, as a rule, there is increased activity of parasympathetic regulation, then there is a mobilization of additional functional reserves (increase the total power of the HRV spectrum). In the middle and in the end of flight, growth of activity of the sympathetic centers of vascular tone regulation (low-frequency range of HRV spectrum) is usually marked. However, there were marked individual specific features of autonomic homeostasis reconfiguration during flight because of the different individual types of autonomic regulation. Therefore, the development of mathematical model of the functional states, considering individual type of autonomic regulation, had great importance.

The greatest interest for practice of medical support of space flights are the results of applying the prenosological approach and methods for probabilistic assessment of risks. The efficiency of a phase plane method application for displaying a trajectory of changes in the functional state at different stages of flight is shown. The results of assessment of a functional status and risk of pathology development at all Russian crew members of ISS are presented. Average categories of risk were in the preflight period — 2, 08, during flight — 3, 04, after flight — 3, 36.

The presented materials show that the use of HRV analysis in combination with the prenosological diagnostics methods and the probabilistic approach for estimating the risk of disease can be applied with advantage in practice of medical support of space flights.


Keywords cardiovascular system, autonomic regulation, mechanisms of adaptation, heart rate variability, functional reserves, a degree of a stress, a likelihood estimation, a category of risk


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